Safe Vehicles includes:
- Active safety (primary) measures which reduce the likelihood of a collision, and
- Passive safety (secondary) measures which mitigate the consequences of any collision not avoided, i.e. seat belts, air bags, helmets, side protection, etc.
Traditionally vehicle safety programmes prioritised improving the safety to vehicle occupants.
There is now greater focus on reducing the risk posed to those outside the vehicle, at least in Europe. As of 2021, the US still did not include pedestrian protection in its vehicle safety ratings.
There is also more of a focus on commercial vehicle safety, as these vehicles pose a disproportionate risk of death and serious injury.
In London, Transport for London (TfL) has pioneered a:
- Bus Safety Programme and
- Direct Vision Standards for HGVs.
Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) has also been introduced in its bus fleet and retrofitted on TfL’s own fleet. TfL has also called on London boroughs to do more by
Leading by example in committing to eliminating casualties on our streets, through supply chains and fleets
Road danger reduction approach builds on this base. It wants not just safer motor vehicles but also less use of motor vehicles. Transport policies should discourage use of cars and promote alternatives to freight in towns with last-mile distribution strategies and greater use of cargo bikes.